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Monsoon and its impact on Indian Agriculture

Indian Economy and Monsoon

Indian economy which is still considered as an agricultural economy  is dependent on the amount of monsoon rains as a large part of the agricultural produce comes from the monsoon fed crops. Good monsoon always means a good harvest and brings in cheers all around India. A weak or bad monsoon is always considered as a big set back to India’s economy and always results in a big loss in the country GDP levels.

The Asian drought of 1987 was, in terms of temperature and precipitation anomalies, one of the worst of this century from Afghanistan to the Philippines. The drought was attributed to El Niño, which is statistically correlated with the type, location, and timing of the unusual weather patterns. However, the physical cause of the drought was the weakness of the southwest monsoon circulation, the driving mechanism of the region's weather patterns. Any irregularity in the normal pattern affects the monsoon system.

This irregularity in the normal pattern was detected in the first weeks of the expected rainy season and lasted throughout the northern hemisphere during summer. As a result, below-normal rainfall and high temperatures damaged crops and livestock throughout Asia. In India, main-season grain and oilseed production reduced drastically below expected levels and winter crops that depend on residual summer moisture for germination were planted well beyond the normal time . While the implications of the drought did not approach the famine years of the 1970's, commodity imports rose, reserves and exportable supplies were reduced, and growth was limited in various economic sectors as the agricultural sector accounts for nearly 30 percent of India's gross domestic product and employs almost 67 percent of the labor force.

As a whole the Indian economy is still largely dependent on good Monsoon rains. Though the improved irrigation and availability of electricity has reduced this dependence to a small extent - the Hydel power generation, ground water availability and it's recharge are totally dependent on good monsoon rains.

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